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HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD using barcode creation for none control to generate, create none image in none applications. USPS OneCode Solution Barcode s s s tar none none -di-tu-a + ur LU.3- u 20 IGI Id PA.SAG-i- i 21 LU.

NI.GAB 22 IGI s 23 LU. a UGU qa-na-te 24 IGI I man-nu-ki- d 10 s NUSKU.

PAP.AS ` s s LU.I.

DU8 25 IGI I a + ur-MU.AS LU. GAL ki-sir 26 sa LU.

GAL . 27 I 28 Id SUM.NINDA IGI AD-ul-ZU 3- u s IGI PA-u-a A.

B[A] 29 ITU.APIN UD 3 KAM 30 lim-me I NU.TES99.

Before this text c an be translated, a number of problems must be solved. The identity of the people described in ADD 618 is debatable. Who is the killer Who is the victim The subject of line 13 is ambiguous.

Lines 12 13 can be translated as Siri, the owner of the blood, whom Silim-ili killed or . as Siri, the owner of the blood, who killed Silim-ili. What is the signi cance .

of calling Siri the owner of the blood Furthermore, who are the people . mentioned in lines 1 11 and what role do they play in remedying the slaying Finally, is it the victim s or killer s relatives who are referred to in lines 15 16, and how do they participate in settling the case Nicholas Postgate argues that Siri is the killer and Silim-ili is the victim, . and that the people of his (Siri s) village, whose seals appear in lines 1 11, .

con rm their responsibility to deliver up Siri.100 According to Postgate, the . murderer, Siri, and his family, those mentioned in lines 15 16, have escaped .

from their own village to avoid punishment and cannot be found. The rest of the villagers, who comprise those named in lines 1 11, have assumed a corporate obligation: In the case that the killer or any of his family reappear, the villagers would be responsible for paying the blood money by handing him over to the injured party to serve as a slave in compensation.101 Postgate appears to be reading lines 12 14 as Siri is the owner of the blood of Silim.

ili [whom] he killed, and identi es the family members in lines 15 16 as members of Siri s family who will be handed over to the victim s family as . payment. The identi cation of Siri as the killer is forced upon Postgate because he .

believes that b l dam refers only to the one who shed the blood. However, e e its appearance in PPA 95, where the individual named as a b l dam is a e e witness to the payment made by a father for a homicide his son committed, is clear evidence that the term can refer to the claimant from the victim s. ending accounts none none for the -a vowel, ellani (cf. Kaspar Riemschneider, An Akkadian Grammar (trans. Thomas A.

Caldwell, John N. Oswalt, and John F. X.

Sheehan; Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press, 1975], 234 235); or 2) the verb is ablative in Assyrian, durative ella, preterite eli, perfect etili (cf. Wolfram von Soden, Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik (3d edition; AnOr 33; Rome: Ponti cium Institutum Biblicum, 1995],188). Here, I believe that both possibilities coalesce since with the ventive ending, the verb can be rendered he arises, which ts the context well.

99 Postgate (Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents, 171) and Roth ( Homicide in the NeoAssyrian Period, 353) read the eponym as I NU.UR. The sign has both values.

100 Postgate, Fifty Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents, 171. 101 Cf. the slayer s daughter in the following text, ADD 321.

. BLOOD FEUD AND STATE CONTROL family. Furthermor none for none e, Postgate is of the opinion that its appearance in the phrase b l dam sadduni in PPA 95 is deceiving: He argues that it should e e not be taken as a freestanding phrase, but rather as part of a phrase similar to frequently occurring phrases, such as b l eqli tadani, the owner of the e eld being sold, or to another phrase found in the palace governor s archive in Nimrud, b l kaspi na e, the owner of the money being borrowed. 102 e s However, the very phrases that Postgate adduces as evidence refute his argu ment.

In the clause b l eqli tadani, the phrase b l eqli is in fact a freestanding e e phrase referring to the owner of the eld who is selling his eld.103 In the clause b l kaspi na e, the phrase b l kaspi is a freestanding phrase referring e s e to the owner of the money being borrowed. However, Theodore Kwasman argues that Silim-ili was the killer and that Siri, whose relationship to Silim-ili is not mentioned, assumed the re.

sponsibility for paying the compensation for the homicide.104 He reads lines 12 14 as Siri is responsible for the blood money [of the person] whom . Silim-ili killed.

This translation is problematic because the relative pro noun sa cannot do double duty to denote both the possessive relationship, of the person, and the direct object, whom. The relative pronoun sa is in apposition to the personal name Siri.105 It would then be better to un.

derstand the personal name Siri as either the subject or the object of the . verb GAZ-u-ni; that is, Siri is either the killer or the victim. Kwasman does .

agree with Postgate s rendering of the rest of the tablet. The people, therefore, enumerated in lines 15 17 are members of the murderer s family who happen to reappear in the village. They are the ones in line 18 who are to pay.

106 Martha T. Roth, in contrast to Postgate and Kwasman, argues that the people enumerated in lines 15 17 are, in fact, claimants from the victim s family, not members of the killer s family.107 She bases her argument on the standard pattern of a Neo-Assyrian debt-note, which she believed applied.

The Governor s Pal ace Archive, 124 the multitudinous occurrences cited in CAD B, 196. 104 Kwasman, Neo-Assyrian Legal Documents, 386. 105 In Old Babylonian, what Kwasman translates would be written Siri b l dam ( a) aw lim e e s .

sa Silim-ili i gu u. The grammatical studies of Neo-Assyrian do not treat this issue. Cf.

Karls s heinz Deller, Zur sprachliche Einordnung der Inschriften A surnasirpals II. (883 859), Or s . 26 (1957), 144 156; Deller, Assyrische Sprachgut bei Tukulti-Ninurta II (888 884), Or 26 (1957), 268 272; Deller, Zweisilbige Lautwerte des Typs KVKV im Neuassyrischen, Or 31 (1962), 7 26; Deller, Studien zur neuassyrischen Orthographie, Or 31 (1962), 188 196; Deller, Neuassyrisches aus Sultantepe, Or 34 (1965), 457 477; Deller, Progressive Vokalassimilation im Neuassyrischen, Or 36 (1967), 337 338; Riemschneider, An Akkadian Grammar, 228 238; von Soden, Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik, 192 193.

106 Kohler and Ungnad interpret these lines in the same fashion, as an order to the killer to compensate for the killing by handing over a member of his own family (Assyrische Rechtsurkunden, 388 389). 107 Roth, Homicide in the Neo-Assyrian Period, 352, 354 355..

103 See 102 Postgate,.
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