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Multiprocessors in Software Connect pdf417 2d barcode in Software Multiprocessors




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Multiprocessors generate, create pdf417 none with software projects Specific Terms for GS1 Barcodes In a distributed sh barcode pdf417 for None ared-memory NUMA system, each processing element has the part of the directory containing the information related to the lines stored in its memory. The processing element whose memory contains the initial value of a line will be called the home node of the line. Any other processing element will be a remote node.

On a cache miss, the request will be sent to the home node s directory of the missing line. Replaced dirty lines will be written back to the memory of their home node. The basic protocol for coherence is as follows.

We assume writeback caches with each line having a clean dirty bit. Consider actions emanating from the ith cache. Let L be the line that is being accessed, let j be the index of L s home node, and V the Boolean vector of the directory associated with L.

r Read hit on a clean or dirty line and write hit on a dirty line: Do nothing. r Read miss: A request is sent to the directory of the home node. b The directory indicates that the line L is uncached or that the line is cached in the clean state (bit V0 = 0).

The data will be sent to cache i, and Vi , the ith bit in V, is set. b The directory indicates that the line L is cached and dirty (bit V = 1), and it 0 gives the index k of where the line is cached (bit Vk = 1, and it is the only bit except V0 that is set). r If k = j, the line is cached in the home node.

The data are written back from the home node s cache j to the home node memory. Line L s dirty bit is reset to clean in cache j. The data are then sent to cache i.

Bit Vi is set to 1, and bit V0 is reset to 0. This is called a one-hop process. r If L is cached in cache k = j, the home node asks cache k to write back the data and to reset its dirty bit for line L to clean.

Then, once the data arrive at the home node, they are stored in the home node s memory and forwarded to cache i. Bit Vi is set to 1, and bit V0 is reset to 0. This is called a two-hop process.

r Write miss: A request is sent to the directory of the home node. b The directory indicates that the line L is uncached: The home node sends the data, and bits Vi and V0 are set to 1. b The directory indicates that the line is cached in the clean state: The home node sends an invalidation message to all caches whose bits are set in V (this is in fact a series of messages if multicast is not possible).

Upon receiving an acknowledgment from a targeted cache, its corresponding bit in V will be reset. When all acknowledgments have been received, the home node forwards the data to cache i. Bits Vi and V0 are set to 1.

b The directory indicates that the line is cached in the dirty state in cache k (V0 = 1 and Vk = 1). r If k = j, the home node, the data are written back from the home node s cache to the home node s memory. Line L is invalidated in cache j.

The data is then sent to cache i. Bits Vi and V0 are set, and bit Vj is reset (one hop)..

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