Node and Edge Coverage in Software Render PDF-417 2d barcode in Software Node and Edge Coverage

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8.1.1 Node and Edge Coverage use software pdf-417 2d barcode creation tocreate pdf417 on software iPad One of the simp Software pdf417 2d barcode lest criteria to instrument for is node coverage. This method most obviously works with node coverage on program source, but the general idea works with arbitrary graphs. Each node in the graph is assigned a unique identi er number.

. Building Testing Tools Original Functi PDF417 for None on public int min (A, B) { int m = A; if (A > B) { m = B; } return (m); }. With Instrument public int min (A, B) { int m = A; if (A > B) { Mark: if body has been reached m = B; } return (m); }. Figure 8.1 Initial example of instrumentation. An array is cre ated that is indexed by the node numbers (called nodeCover []). Next, the following instrument is inserted at each node i: nodeCover [i]++;. It is important that the nodeCover[] array be persistent, that is, it must be saved to disk after each test case.

This allows results to be accumulated across multiple test cases. After some tests have been executed, every node i for which nodeCover[i] is zero has not been covered. If nodeCover[i] is not zero, its value represents the number of times node i was reached.

This process is shown in Figure 8.2. The nodeCover[] array must be read before execution starts and is shown on node 1 in the gure.

Each node is annotated with the appropriate instrumentation ( nc is used as an abbreviation for nodeCover ). An automated coverage analysis tool can insert the instruments at the beginning. int nodeCover [ Software pdf417 ] = {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}. Read (nodeCover [ ]); nodeCover [1] ++;. nc [2]++;. nc [3]++;. nc [4]++;. nc [5]++;. nc [7]++;. nc [8]++; nc [6]++;. 6 9 8. nc [9]++; nc [10]++;. Figure 8.2. Node coverage instrumentation. Applying Criteria in Practice int edgeCover [ PDF-417 2d barcode for None ] = {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0} Read (edgeCover [ ]);. ec [1]++;. ec [2]++;. ec [3]++;. ec [4]++;. ec [8]++;. ec [5]++;. ec [6]++;. ec [9]++;. ec [11]++; ec [10]++;. ec [7]++; 9 ec [13]++;. ec [12]++;. Figure 8.3. Edge coverage instrumentation. of basic blocks or in front of individual statements. The latter is less accurate, but simpler to implement, so is fairly common in commercial tools. The instruments can also be inserted in the source code and then compiled separately, into executable les, or into intermediate forms such as Java ByteCode.

Java Re ection could also be used to insert instrumentation, although we know of no tool that uses this technique. Instrumenting for edge coverage is only slightly more complicated than for node coverage. Each edge in the graph is assigned a unique identi er number.

An array is created that is indexed by the edge numbers (edgeCover []). Next the following instrument is inserted onto each edge i: edgeCover[i]++;. This process is illustrated in Figure 8.

3. As with node coverage, the edgeCover[] array must be read before execution starts. Each node in Figure 8.

3 is annotated with ec as an abbreviation for edgeCover. The instrumentation for some edges is sometimes omitted if coverage is implied by another. For example, in Figure 8.

3, any test that causes edge 3 to be executed will also cause edge 5 to be executed. Some structures do not explicitly represent all edges. For example, the following program source does not have a location for the instrumentation on the else edge:.

if (isPrime) { Software pdf417 2d barcode // save it! primes[numPrimes] = curPrime; numPrimes++; }. Building Testing Tools Therefore the e barcode pdf417 for None lse clause must be explicitly added to instrument for branch coverage:. if (isPrime) { // save it! primes[numPrimes] = curPrime; numPrimes++; } else edgeCover[5]++;. 8.1.2 Data Flow Coverage Data ow covera ge is somewhat more complicated than node and edge coverage. The primary difference is that the criterion is based on two locations in the program: one for the de nition and one for the use. As with node coverage, each node is assigned a unique number, but two arrays are used.

Since edges can also contain uses, each edge must also be assigned a unique number. The technique is to use one array to keep track of de nitions and another to keep track of uses. At each location where variable x is de ned, the statement defCover[x] = i; is added, where i is the node number.

This means that defCover[x] will store the last location where x was de ned. The second array keeps track of uses. For a variable x, useCover[] stores uses on a node or edge.

For each node or edge i where a variable x is used, the statement useCover[i, x, defCover[x]]++; is added. The array location useCover[i, x, defCover[x]] indicates that x is used at node (or edge) i and the de nition from node defCover[x] has reached the use at i. Figure 8.

4 illustrates instrumentation for All-uses. Variables x and y are de ned (through parameter passing or assignments) at node 1 and y is rede ned at node 2. Variable x is used at nodes 4 and 5 and y is used at node 6.

If the path 1, 2,. defCover [y] = 2;. def (x, y) defC over [x] = 1; defCover [y] = 1;. 3 10 11. def (y). 2 9 4 12 6. use (x) use (x). 13 5. useCover [5, x, defCover [x]] ++;. use (y) useCove PDF 417 for None r [4, x, defCover [x]] ++;. useCover [6, y, defCover [y]] ++;.
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