How to generate, print barcode using .NET, Java sdk library control with example project source code free download:
7.3 TESTING GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES using barcode printing for software control to generate, create pdf-417 2d barcode image in software applications. Office Word Graphical user interfaces (G PDF-417 2d barcode for None UIs) account for half or more of the amount of source code in modern software systems. Yet there is very little help for testing this large amount of software. GUI testing falls into two categories.

Usability testing refers to assessing how usable the interface is, using principles from user interface design. While usability testing is extremely important, it is out of the scope of this book. Functional testing refers to assessing whether the user interface works as intended.

Functional testing can be further broken down into four types. GUI system testing refers to performing system testing through the GUI. The only difference in GUI system testing other types of testing is in how to automate the tests.

Regression testing refers to testing the UI after changes are made. The most common type of regression test tool is a capture-replay tool. Generally speaking, they capture some user inputs, replay them through the UI after changes have been made, and report the differences.

Dozens of capture-replay tools are available on the market,. Engineering Criteria for Technologies the concept is fairly simple Software pdf417 2d barcode , so they is not discussed further in this chapter. Input validation testing tests how well the software recognizes and responds to invalid inputs. The techniques used for input validation testing are not particularly affected by using a graphical user interface as opposed to other types of interface, thus this topic is not discussed in this section.

Finally, GUI testing refers to assessing how well the GUI works. The tester asks questions such as Do all the UI controls work as intended , Does the software allow the user to navigate to all screens that the user would expect , and Are inappropriate navigations disallowed ..

7.3.1 Testing GUIs One fairly obvious technique Software PDF 417 for testing GUIs is to use some sort of nite state machine model, then apply graph-based criteria from 2. Modeling a GUI as a state machine is fairly straightforward, as they are naturally event-based systems. Every user event (pushing a button, entering text, navigating to another screen) causes a transition to a new state.

A path is a sequence of edges through the transitions, and represents one test case. An advantage of this approach is that the expected output is simply the nal state that the test case input should arrive in. The problem with this approach is the possibility of state explosion; even small GUIs will have thousands of states and transitions.

The number of states can be reduced in one of several ways. Variable nite state machines reduce the number of abstract states by adding variables to the model. These models must be created by hand.

Also, if these models are used for veri cation via an automated test oracle, effective mappings between the machine s abstract states and the GUI s concrete state need to be developed by hand. A variation on the state-machine model for GUI test case generation partitions the state space into different machines based on user tasks. The tester identi es a user task (called a responsibility, that can be performed with the GUI.

Each responsibility is converted to a complete interaction sequence (CIS). These are similar, but not exactly the same as the use cases in 2. Each CIS is a graph, and graph coverage criteria can be used to cover them.

Although it is relatively simple to de ne the responsibilities, converting them into FSM models must be done by hand, which is a signi cant expense. Another approach to testing GUIs relies on modeling the user behavior, specifically by mimicking novice users. The intuition is that expert users take short, direct paths through the GUI that are not particularly useful for testing.

Novice users, on the other hand, take indirect paths that exercise the GUI in different ways. In this approach, an expert starts by generating a few sequences of inputs. These initial sequences are used to generate tests by applying genetic algorithms to modify them to look more like sequences created by novices.

A more recent compromise approach is based on an event- ow model through the GUI. The event ow model proceeds in two steps. First, each event is encoded in preconditions.

Preconditions include the state in which the event can be executed and the effects of the event, that is, the state change that occurs as a result of the event. Second, the tester represents all possible sequences of events that can be executed on the GUI as a set of directed graphs. Third, preconditions and effects are used to generate tests by using a goal-directed approach.

Because the expected.
Copyright © . All rights reserved.