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7.2.2 Testing Dynamic Web Applications generate, create barcode pdf417 none in software projects Microsoft Office Word Website One of many c PDF 417 for None hallenges with testing web applications is that the user interface (on the client) and most of the software (on the server) are separated. The tester usually does not have access to data, state, or source on the server. This section rst discusses client-side testing strategies and their limitations, then server-side testing strategies that can be used when the tester has access to the implementation.

. Client-Side T esting of Web Applications Testing static hypertext links works well when all pages and links are statically encoded in HTML, but not when parts of the web site are created dynamically or include user inputs. We need some way to generate inputs for form elds. Generating a web site graph also becomes undecidable if some pages or links are only available after certain inputs are provided.

One method is to nondeterministically explore action sequences, starting from a given URL. Data for form elds can be chosen from inputs pre-supplied by the testing. Another method for generating input data is based on gathering data from previous users of a web application.

This is called user session data. Most web servers either capture the data that users submit to web applications on the server, or their settings can be modi ed to gather the data. These data are collected in name-value pairs and used to generate test inputs.

. Applying Criteria in Practice Another appro ach to nding inputs is called bypass testing. Many web applications impose constraints on the inputs through HTML forms. These constraints come in two forms.

Client-side script validation users small programs, usually written in JavaScript, that run on the client s computer and check the input data syntactically before sending it to the server. This is commonly used to ensure that required elds are lled out, numeric data elds only contain numbers, and the like. Another form uses explicit attributes associated with HTML form elds.

For example, a text box can be set to only allow strings up to a preset maximum length, and the values from drop-down lists are preset to be the values contained in the HTML. Bypass testing creates inputs that intentionally violate these validation rules and constraints, then submits the inputs directly to the web application without letting the web page validate them. A limitation of both these approaches comes from the fact that nding all the screens in a web application is undecidable.

They rely on heuristic searches to try to identify all screens, but if some screens only appear when certain rare inputs are provided, it may be very dif cult to nd them. Server-side approaches may have the ability to look at program source, and therefore nd more potential screens..

Server-Side T Software PDF 417 esting of Web Applications Web software applications allow changes in the control of execution of the application that do not appear in traditional software. In traditional programs, the control ow is fully managed by the program, so the tester can only affect it through test inputs. Web applications do not have this same property.

When executing web applications, users can break the normal control ow without alerting the program controller. The model of program controller that is still taught in basic programming and operating system classes does not exactly apply to web applications because the ow of control is distributed across the client and one or more servers. Users can modify the expected control ow on the client by pressing the back or refresh buttons in the browser or by directly modifying the URL in the browser.

These interactions introduce unanticipated changes in the execution ow, creating control paths cannot be represented with traditional techniques such as control ow graphs. Users can also directly affect data in unpredictable ways, for example, by modifying values of hidden form elds. Furthermore, changes in the client-side con guration may affect the behavior of web applications.

For example, users can turn off cookies, which can cause subsequent operations to malfunction. This analysis leads to a number of new connections, which we categorize as follows..

Traditional static links are represented in HTML with the <A> tag. Dynamic <A> links make a request from a static web page to software compo . nents to exec Software PDF417 ute some process. No form data is sent in the request, and the type of the HTTP request is always get. Dynamic form links make a request from a form in a static web page by sending data to software components that process the data, using a <FORM> tag.

The type of HTTP request can be either get or post, as speci ed in the <method> attribute of the <FORM> tag. The data that is submitted via forms impacts the back-end processing, which is important for testing..

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