MD 15, sec. 11, pp. 23 24. in .NET Generating QR-Code in .NET MD 15, sec. 11, pp. 23 24.

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MD 15, sec. 11, pp. 23 24. using none tobuild none with web,windows application Intelligent Mail The substantial form as partial substance This indicates the existence of a substantial form for the dissolution of the substantial form explains why, in some cases, the accidents never return. In these cases, the action of the external cause was so intense that it destroyed even the primary form along with its power to reinstate the lost accidents . The presence of a substantial form also explains why the destruction or diminution of one accident can cause a transformation of the entire thing.

The reason is the inseparability between that accident and some intrinsic principle. now this intrinsic principle cannot be prime matter, for it is indifferent to all accidents, and remains throughout any change. nor can it be an accident in the way that heat, by virtue of its inseparability from rarity, might be considered the principle of rarity.

For both heat and rarity can be lost, and then restored if the primary form remains intact. Therefore, the intrinsic principle which is inseparable from the accidents that constitute a thing s nature must be the substantial form.13 The third and last type of empirical argument in favor of the substantial form concerns its ability to unite seemingly unrelated accidental forms in one subject .

suarez reasons that the substantial form is needed in order to unite disparate qualities such as the whiteness and sweetness of milk. He observes that accidental properties can be united in one natural being either by a hierarchy, as when the will is subordinated to the intellect , or without any mutual subordination, as in the case of the heat and humidity of the air, and whiteness and sweetness united in milk. In both cases there must be a single form uniting them, for if they were gathered together in the same subject purely by accident, if one were destroyed, the other would remain.

But experience shows that whiteness does not remain when the sweetness of milk is destroyed. This is a sign that these accidents are not connected by virtue of prime matter alone, but by virtue of a composite of prime matter and a substantial form.14 suarez s empirical arguments indicate that, unlike Aquinas , he emphasizes the role that the material substantial form plays in explaining the various actions and other accidents of a body over arguments from generation and corruption.

15 correspondingly, this is the function of the substantial form that Descartes seeks to replace in his scientific arguments and his second metaphysical argument. Indeed, he offers only one argument from coming to be, and as we saw, this was based on the creation ex nihilo of the immortal soul . When we turn to Descartes early scientific writings it will become.

13 15. MD 15, sec s. 12 13, pp. 24 25.

14 MD 15, sec. 14, p. 26.

For the importance of the unifying function of the substantial form in suarez, see John D. Kronen, The Importance of the concept of substantial Unity in su rez s Argument for Hylomorphism, American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 65/3 (1991), pp. 333 360.

. Suarez s defense of the substantial form clear that he initially equates his mechanistic principles with the essential forms of individual corporeal substances, like grains of salt and snowflakes. While mechanistic principles handle cases such as the generation and corruption of an organism poorly, Descartes recognizes that they are viable competitors when it comes to the other functions of the substantial form that suarez emphasizes. We can draw several conclusions from this survey of suarez s a posteriori arguments in favor of the substantial form.

First, the amount of space he devotes to such arguments, and the sheer number of objections and counter arguments he addresses, indicate that empirical arguments against the substantial form were both common and taken seriously at this time. suarez even cites several authorities in favor of the denial of substantial forms, namely, Alexander of Aphrodisias, John Philoponous, Galen, and empedocles.16 note that the first two are ancient commentators whose interpretations of Aristotle had gained a strong following in the renaissance.

second, unlike Aquinas , suarez s arguments for the existence of substantial forms in inanimate bodies are heavily dependent neither on Aristotle s texts nor on specific metaphysical doctrines. rather than starting from a particular passage in Aristotle or a metaphysical premise, most of suarez s arguments are ecumenical in nature. They are based on empirical observations, inferences to the best explanation, and sound methodological principles, like one should not multiply entities beyond necessity.

only rarely does suarez appeal to metaphysically laden concepts such as prime matter, and even when he does, his arguments as a whole do not stand or fall with this concept (though, of course, some of his other assumptions do not appear well grounded to us as post-empiricists). Finally, despite the fact that our skeptical , postatomist rejection of natural kinds and real qualities prevents us from embracing them, these arguments represent the best science of the time and would probably have been convincing to most of suarez s contemporaries. one has to keep in mind that during the period that suarez was writing his Metaphysical Disputations a physics based on atomist or mechanistic principles had not yet been developed, and so alternative explanatory principles to the elements, forms, substances, and accidents of scholastic Aristotelianism were rather limited.

It is true that alchemists had already replaced Aristotle s four elements with their own, and neoplatonists plus adherents of natural magic appealed to forms emanating from the celestial sphere and occult qualities to explain certain.
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