temperature in .NET Encoder 3 of 9 in .NET temperature

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net Code-39 C for the sensor, times 2 to account for the random error in the temperature measurement. pressure 0.5% of full span ref rigerant mass flow rate 1 2% of full span coolant flow rate mass flow rate solution ref rigerant concentration (for absorption machines). coolant 0.25% of full span 0.5% of full span Qevap = C ( m dm )( DT d ( DT )). m ( T ) Q evap = mC T + T m cooling rate and COP (mechan ical chillers). COP = Qevap d Qevap Pin dPin Qevap Pin LM d Q OP + L d P O NM Q QP MN P PQ evap in evap in Total uncertainty is estimat ed at around 7%. The contribution from electrical power measurement is negligible..

cooling rate and COP (absorp Visual Studio .NET barcode 3 of 9 tion chillers). Same as for mechanical chillers (immediately above), but with Pin replaced by Qgen. Ac c e p ta b le unc e r ta .NET barcode 3 of 9 inty va lue s are about 5 7%..

Cool Thermodynamics Mechanochemistry of Mater ials to be at least 30 minutes, p .NET barcode 3/9 receded by an additional period of 20 minutes at different conditions but with the same temperature tolerance level. Table 3.

1 summarizes the standard rating conditions and measurement tolerances for reciprocating, centrifugal and absorption chillers. The basic instrumentation required in a simple facility for rating mechanical chillers must include measurements of flow rate, temperature and electrical power input. For absorption chillers, measurements of pressure and of the rate of thermal power input are also required.

The total uncertainty for the COP can be estimated from the type of instrumentation used, with Table 3.2 listing typical error bands. Sample temperature time traces from actual standard chiller and heat pump tests are shown in Figures 3.

3 and 3.4 in Tutorials 3.1 and 3.

2 below. The differential temperature measurement across the heat exchangers tends to be the major source of error, because the heat exchangers usually have low differential readings of T = 3-5 C. Despite the use of class A sensors, the uncertainty in this reading typically amounts to about 6%.

Flow rate measurements can commonly be made to around 1% accuracy. Errors from measuring input electrical power are usually negligible. Hence a simple test facility with basic instrumentation should provide a COP determination with an uncertainty level of about 7%.

By employing expensive matched-pair temperature sensors for the en-. Temperature ( C). Time (min). Figure 3.3: Temperature time trace during an application rating test of a reciprocating chiller. 62 .

Standards, Measurements and Experimental Test Facilities in Tcond = 44.5 C in Tevap = 35.0 C out in Tcond Tcond = 15.5 C TIME [min] Figure 3.4: Tempe bar code 39 for .NET rature time trace during the standard rating test of a reciprocating heat pump.

. ergy flow computation, one c an noticeably reduce the total uncertainty in the COP. No measurement can be viewed as more accurate than its experimental uncertainty. For example, if, after proper error analysis, the COP of a heat pump is measured to be 3.

10 0.30, then clearly any alteration in the heat pump that results in its COP changing by less than 0.30 cannot be accepted as statistically significant.

The uncertainty in the determination of any variable is determined from the combination of systematic and random errors, in accordance with standard error analyses of experimental data (see, for example, ASHRAE Standard 41.5-75 [ASHRAE 1975]). The total uncertainty comprises contributions from each of the individual measurements of temperature, pressure, flow rate and power input, plus the assumed values for assorted material constants such as density, specific heat and thermodynamic state variables.

Table 3.2 offers a list of typical accuracies for the variables measured in chiller and heat pump test rigs. These constitute the primary contributions to the total uncertainty in determining the useful effect (cooling or heating rate) and the COP.

When transient (as opposed to steady-state) chiller performance is desired, the response time of each sensor must be evaluated separately. The rule of thumb is that the sensor should have a response time an order of magnitude faster than the intended signal being measured. Furthermore, the comprehensive test facility that can monitor refrigerant variables must include gravimetric measurement devices for tracking the.

Cool Thermodynamics Mechanochemistry of Mater ials inventory of refrigerant in the principal chiller components. Tutorial 3.1 Refer to Figure 3.3. Determi ne the cooling rate and COP of the reciprocating chiller at application rating conditions.

The condenser and evaporator coolant volumetric flow rates are 0.616 and 0.461 l s 1, respectively.

The electrical power meter reads 3.80 0.01 kW.

The specific heat of water in the range of evaporator coolant temperatures is 4.2 kJ kg 1 K 1, and its density is 1.00 kg l 1 .

Positive displacement pumps are employed in the facility, and water flow rates are maintained satisfactorily constant throughout the test period. The total experimental uncertainty of the computed cooling rate and COP is estimated to be 7%, with the error contribution from the power meter reading being negligible..

Solution: First, from inspec 3 of 9 for .NET tion of Figure 3.3, we confirm that, at the rating conditions, the steady-state interval is at least 30 minutes, in accordance with the requirements of ARI Standard 590.

Next, from the data, we have the elementary calculations: useful effect of cooling at the evaporator experimental uncertainty in cooling rate electrical input COP experimental uncertainty in COP = ( V)evap C(Tevap - Tevap ) = 1.00 0.461 4.

2 5.5 = 10.65 kW = 0.

07 10.65 = 0.75 kW = 3.

8 kW =. 10 .65 = 2 .80 3 .

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