Propositional De nite Clauses in VS .NET Generate PDF 417 in VS .NET Propositional De nite Clauses

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5.2. Propositional De nite Clauses generate, create qr code 2d barcode none on .net projects Windows Forms Instead, we represe QR Code 2d barcode for .NET nt this domain at a commonsense level that non-electricians may use to describe the domain, in terms of wires being live and currents owing from the outside through wires to the lights, and that circuit breakers and light switches connect wires if they are turned on and working. We have to choose what to represent.

Suppose we want to represent propositions about whether lights are lit, whether wires are live, whether switches are up or down, and whether components are broken. We then choose atoms with a speci c meaning in the world. We can use descriptive names for these, such as up s2 to represent whether switch s2 is up and live l1 to represent whether light l1 is live (i.

e., has power coming into it). The computer does not know the meaning of these names and does not have access to the components of the atom s name.

At this stage, we have not told the computer anything. It does not know what the atoms are, let alone what they mean. Once we have decided which symbols to use and what they mean, we tell the system, using de nite clauses, background knowledge about what is true in the world.

The simplest forms of de nite clauses are those without bodies the atomic clauses such as light l1 . light l2 . ok l1 .

ok l2 . ok cb1 . ok cb2 .

live outside. The designer may look at part of the domain and know that light l1 is live if wire w0 is live, because they are connected together, but may not know if w0 is live. Such knowledge is expressible in terms of rules: live l1 live w0 .

live w0 live w1 up s2 . live w0 live w2 down s2 . live w1 live w3 up s1 .

live w2 live w3 down s1 . live l2 live w4 . live w4 live w3 up s3 .

live p1 live w3 . live w3 live w5 ok cb1 . live p2 live w6 .

live w6 live w5 ok cb2 . live w5 live outside. lit l1 light l1 live l1 ok l1 .

lit l2 light l2 live l2 ok l2 .. 5. Propositions and Inference At run time, the us QR-Code for .NET er is able to input the observations of the current switch positions, such as down s1 . up s2 .

up s3 . The knowledge base consists of all of the de nite clauses, whether speci ed as background knowledge or as observations..

5.2.1 Questions and Answers One reason to build QR Code 2d barcode for .NET a description of a world is to be able to determine what else must be true in that world. After the computer is given a knowledge base about a particular domain, a user might like to ask the computer questions about that domain.

The computer can answer whether or not a proposition is a logical consequence of the knowledge base. If the user knows the meaning of the atoms, the user can interpret the answer in terms of the domain. A query is a way of asking whether a proposition is a logical consequence of a knowledge base.

Once the system has been provided with a knowledge base, a query is used to ask whether a formula is a logical consequence of the knowledge base. Queries have the form ask b. where b is a body (page 163).

A query is a question that has the answer yes if the body is a logical consequence of the knowledge base, or the answer no if the body is not a consequence of the knowledge base. The latter does not mean that body is false in the intended interpretation but rather that it is impossible to determine whether it is true or false based on the knowledge provided. Example 5.

6 Once the computer has been told the knowledge base of Example 5.5 (page 164), it can answer queries such as ask light l1 ..

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