General Layout and Design r 181 in .NET Include 2d Data Matrix barcode in .NET General Layout and Design r 181

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General Layout and Design r 181 using barcode implement for visual studio .net control to generate, create data matrix barcode image in visual studio .net applications. Code-27 Figure 4.29 Vertical Scale Alignment over Two Columns. Figure 4.30 Horizontal Scale Alignment over Two Rows. 182 r Designing Effective Web Surveys Figure 4.31 Example of Bank ing for Multiple Questions. in several columns to reduce the amount of vertical space used by a particular question.

With space being costless on the Web, banking may be less necessary. However, there is still a trade-off between dividing a long list of response options into two or more columns so that all responses are visible on the screen, versus a single list that requires scrolling to see the later items. I d assert here that horizontal scrolling should be avoided at all costs.

Given this, the width of the columns may be more important than their length. While banking is typically used for a single question with a number of response options, Figure 4.31 shows an example of banking for a set of different questions.

In this case, there seems to be no bene t to arranging questions this way on the Web. Christian (2003) tested several different versions of the same item in a Web survey completed by nearly 1,600 Washington State University students. Christian and Dillman (2004) conducted similar experiments on paper, with roughly equivalent results.

An example of one of the questions from Christian (2003) is shown in Figure 4.32. While the addition of numbers did not change the distribution of responses (i.

e., the two designs on the right of the gure did not differ signi cantly), the linear version differed signi cantly from the other versions. The mean rating of student life was signi cantly lower (2.

16) in the linear version than in the triple horizontal (2.36), triple vertical (2.41), and triple vertical with numbers (2.

36). In terms of individual responses, the biggest difference was for the good category, with 23% selecting that category in the horizontal version and. General Layout and Design r 183 Figure 4.32 Experimental Co nditions from Christian (2003). 33% in the vertical banked version.

This suggests that respondents are reading horizontally rather than vertically. While the Gestalt grouping law of proximity may suggest that the two options in the rst columns of the triple-banked version would be seen as belonging together, it appears that conventions of reading order led respondent to read the response options horizontally (from left to right) rather than vertically. There are other examples where columnar presentation may affect the responses obtained, even in interviewer-administered surveys.

In an early comparison of computer-assisted and paper-and-pencil telephone interviewing, Bergman, Kristiansson, Olofsson, and S fstrom (1994) found signi cant differences by method a in a question on attachment to the labor market. While the question wording was identical, the paper-and-pencil version grouped the response categories into two columns, the rst indicating strong attachment, and the second weak attachment. In the computer-assisted (CATI) version, the response categories were placed in a single column.

With external evidence suggesting that the paper-and-pencil version provided more reliable responses, the CATI version was changed to resemble the paper version, and the signi cant differences subsequently disappeared. Given the effect that such banking may have on response distributions, there seems no reason to bank for questions with only a few response options, such as that in Figure 4.32.

However, for longer lists, the trade-off may be one of grouping the items in several columns or providing a single long list that will necessitate scrolling. Of course, with questions such as this, the rst thing one might want to. 184 r Designing Effective Web Surveys Figure 4.33 Responses in Two Columns. ask is whether a list of responses of that length is necessary.

The rst and often the best thing to consider is whether the question might be split into two or more parts. In 2, we saw an example of the use of check boxes, with the choices arranged in two columns. That was actually part of an experiment Baker and I conducted in a 1999 survey of University of Michigan students (for background on the survey, see McCabe et al.

, 2002). That version is reproduced here in Figure 4.33, along with the single-column version in Figure 4.

34. While we did not randomize the order of the responses, we interleaved them so that we could detect effects of presentation in one versus two columns. The literature on response order effects suggests we should get more items endorsed at the top of the list in the single column version this is the classic primacy effect (see Krosnick and Alwin, 1987; Tourangeau, Rips, and Rasinski, 2000).

For the two-column version, we expected fewer items to be endorsed in the right column, for two reasons: (1) regular reading order is column-by-column where there is suf cient visual separation, meaning that these are the last items to be read and (2) the spatial separation of the second column from the rst may result in some respondents not even noticing that column. This is indeed what we found. With about 1,300 respondents in each group, we found that signi cantly more items were endorsed in the top half of the single-column version and in the left column of the two-column version.

To examine a speci c example, the item To increase enjoyment of music or food appears on the left in Figure 4.33 and in the lower half of Figure 4.34.

This item was endorsed by 25.5% of respondents in the two-column version and 15.8% in the one-column version.

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