Architectures of VLSI Circuits in Software Paint 39 barcode in Software Architectures of VLSI Circuits

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Architectures of VLSI Circuits using barcode maker for software control to generate, create uss code 39 image in software applications. Mobile Barcode Usage Definitions vertex edge memoryless operation transport weight indicates latency in computation cycles Shorthand notations 0 = introduced for convenience fan out expressed as "no operation" vertex illegal!. c constant input expressed as constant data source x(k) variable input expressed as time-varying data source y(k) output expressed as data sink Danger of r ace conditions circular paths of edge weight zero are not admitted!. 0 0 0 0 0 0. Fig. 2.10 Data dependency graph (DDG) notation. 2.3.5 The isomorphic architecture No matter h ow one has arrived at some initial proposal, it always makes sense to search for a better hardware arrangement. Inspired VLSI architects will let themselves be guided by intuition and experience to come up with one or more tentative designs before looking for bene cial reorganizations. Yet, for the subsequent discussion and evaluation of the various equivalence transforms available, we need something to compare with.

A natural candidate is the isomorphic architecture, see g.2.11e for an example, where Each combinational operation in the DDG is carried out by a hardware unit of its own, Each hardware register stands for a latency of one in the DDG, There is no need for control because DDG and block diagram are isomorphic,17 and Clock rate and data input/output rate are the same.

. other m ean Code39 for None ings in the context of hardware design, we prefer circular path in spite of its clum siness. For the sam e reason, let us use vertex when referring to graphs and no de when referring to electrical networks. A zero-weight circular path in a DDG im plies im m ediate feedback and expresses a self-referencing combinational function.

Such zero-latency feedback lo ops are known to exp ose the p ertaining electronic circuits to unpredictable b ehavior and are, therefore, highly undesirable, see section 5.4.3 for details.

Two directed graphs are said to b e isom orphic if there exists a one-to-one corresp ondence b etween their vertices and b etween their edges such that all incidence relations and all edge orientations are preserved. M ore inform ally, two isom orphic graphs b ecom e indistinguishable when the lab els and weights are rem oved from their vertices and edges. Rem emb er that how a graph is drawn is of no im p ortance for the theory of graphs.

. 2.3 A TRANSFORM APPROACH TO VLSI ARCHITECTURE DESIGN Example x(k). y(k) =. bn x(k-n). y(k). y(k) = z-1 x(k) b0 bn(k) x(k-n) n=0 -1. z b2 x(k) z-1 b0 b1 b2 b3 parallel multiplier y(k). y(k). adder Fig. 2.11 T hird order (N = 3) transversal lter expressed as a mathematical function (a), drawn as data dependency graph (DDG) (b), and implemented with the isomorphic hardware architecture (d).

Signal ow graph shown for comparison (c).. An architec Code 39 Full ASCII for None ture design as naive as this obviously cannot be expected utilize hardware e ciently, but it will serve as a reference for discussing both the welcome and the unfavorable e ects of various architectural reorganizations. You may also think of the isomorphic architecture as a hypothetical starting point from which any more sophisticated architecture can be obtained by applying a sequence of equivalence transforms.18.

2.3.6 Relative merits of architectural alternatives Throughout 39 barcode for None our analysis, we will focus on the subsequent gures of merit. Circuit size A. Depending on how actual hardware costs are best expressed, the designer is free to interpret size as area occupation (in mm2 or lithographic squares F 2 for ASICs) or as circuit complexity (in terms of GE for ASICs and FPL).

Cycles per data item denotes the number of computation cycles that separates the releasing of two consecutive data items, or which is normally the same the number of computation cycles between accepting two subsequent data items.. See problem 2.10 for a m ore thorough exp osure. Also observe that our transform approach to architecture design b ears som e resemblance to the theory of evolution.

. Architectures of VLSI Circuits Longest pat h delay tlp indicates the lapse of time required for data to propagate along the longest combinational path through a given digital network. Path lengths are typically indicated in ns. What makes the maximum path length so important is that it limits the operating speed of a given architecture.

For a circuit to function correctly, it must always be allowed to settle to a typically new steady state within a single computation period Tcp .19 We thus obtain the requirement tlp Tcp , where the exact meaning of computation period is to be de ned shortly in section 2.3.

7. Time per data item T indicates the time elapsed between releasing two subsequent data items. Depending on the application, T might be stated in s/sample, ms/frame, or s/calculation, for instance.

T = Tcp tlp holds with equality if the circuit gets clocked at the fastest possible rate.. 1 Data thro Software Code-39 ughput = T is the most meaningful measure of overall circuit performance. Throughput gets expressed in terms of data items processed per time unit; e.g.

in pixel/s, sample/s, frame/s, data record/s, FFT/s, matrix inversion/s, and the like.20 It is given by.
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