A Primer on CMOS Technology in Software Implementation Code 3/9 in Software A Primer on CMOS Technology

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14 A Primer on CMOS Technology generate, create 39 barcode none with software projects iPhone 14.1 The essence o Code39 for None f MOS device physics 14.1.

1 Energy bands and electrical conduction 14.1.2 Doping of semiconductor materials 14.

1.3 Junctions, contacts, and diodes 14.1.

4 MOSFETs 14.2 Basic CMOS fabrication ow 14.2.

1 Key characteristics of CMOS technology 14.2.2 Front-end-of-line fabrication steps 14.

2.3 Back-end-of-line fabrication steps 14.2.

4 Process monitoring 14.2.5 Photolithography 14.

3 Variations on the theme 14.3.1 Copper has replaced aluminum as interconnect material 14.

3.2 Low-permittivity interlevel dielectrics are replacing silicon dioxide 14.3.

3 High-permittivity gate dielectrics to replace silicon dioxide 14.3.4 Strained silicon and SiGe technology 14.

3.5 Metal gates bound to come back 14.3.

6 Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. 15 Outlook 15.1 Evolution pat 3 of 9 barcode for None hs for CMOS technology 15.1.

1 Classic device scaling 15.1.2 The search for new device topologies 15.

1.3 Vertical integration 15.1.

4 The search for better semiconductor materials 15.2 Is there life after CMOS 15.2.

1 Non-CMOS data storage 15.2.2 Non-CMOS data processing 15.

3 Technology push 15.3.1 The so-called industry laws and the forces behind them 15.

3.2 Industrial roadmaps 15.4 Market pull.

CONTENTS 15.5 Evolution pat Code 3 of 9 for None hs for design methodology 15.5.

1 The productivity problem 15.5.2 Fresh approaches to architecture design 15.

6 Summary 15.7 Six grand challenges 15.8 Appendix: Non-semiconductor storage technologies for comparison.

724 724 727 729 73 0 731 732 732 732 734 735 735 736 736 736 737 738 740 741 741 742 742 743 747 747 747 749 749 750 751 752 755 756 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 766 768 770 771. Appendix A Elementary Digital Electronics A.1 Introduction A .1.

1 Common number representation schemes A.1.2 Notational conventions for two-valued logic A.

2 Theoretical background of combinational logic A.2.1 Truth table A.

2.2 The n-cube A.2.

3 Karnaugh map A.2.4 Program code and other formal languages A.

2.5 Logic equations A.2.

6 Two-level logic A.2.7 Multilevel logic A.

2.8 Symmetric and monotone functions A.2.

9 Threshold functions A.2.10 Complete gate sets A.

2.11 Multi-output functions A.2.

12 Logic minimization A.3 Circuit alternatives for implementing combinational logic A.3.

1 Random logic A.3.2 Programmable logic array (PLA) A.

3.3 Read-only memory (ROM) A.3.

4 Array multiplier A.3.5 Digest A.

4 Bistables and other memory circuits A.4.1 Flip- ops or edge-triggered bistables A.

4.2 Latches or level-sensitive bistables A.4.

3 Unclocked bistables A.4.4 Random access memories (RAMs) A.

5 Transient behavior of logic circuits A.5.1 Glitches, a phenomenological perspective A.

5.2 Function hazards, a circuit-independent mechanism A.5.

3 Logic hazards, a circuit-dependent mechanism A.5.4 Digest A.

6 Timing quantities A.6.1 Delay quantities apply to combinational and sequential circuits A.

6.2 Timing conditions apply to sequential circuits only A.6.

3 Secondary timing quantities A.6.4 Timing constraints address synthesis needs.

CONTENTS xvii A.7 Microprocessor input/output transfer protocols A.8 Summary 771 773 775 775 77 6 777 778 779 782 783 785 785 787 787 789 790 793 794 794 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 800 801 802 802 802 804 804 807 808. Appendix B Finite State Machines B.1 Abstract autom ata B.1.

1 Mealy machine B.1.2 Moore machine B.

1.3 Medvedev machine B.1.

4 Relationships between nite state machine models B.1.5 Taxonomy of nite state machines B.

1.6 State reduction B.2 Practical aspects and implementation issues B.

2.1 Parasitic states and symbols B.2.

2 Mealy-, Moore-, Medvedev-type, and combinational output bits B.2.3 Through paths and logic instability B.

2.4 Switching hazards B.2.

5 Hardware costs B.3 Summary. Appendix C VLSI Designer s Checklist C.1 Design data sa nity C.2 Pre-synthesis design veri cation C.

3 Clocking C.4 Gate-level considerations C.5 Design for test C.

6 Electrical considerations C.7 Pre-layout design veri cation C.8 Physical considerations C.

9 Post-layout design veri cation C.10 Preparation for testing of fabricated prototypes C.11 Thermal considerations C.

12 Board-level operation and testing C.13 Documentation. Appendix D Symbols and constants D.1 Mathematical symbols used D.2 Abbreviations D.3 Physical and material constants References Index 811 832. Preface Why this book Des igning integrated electronics has become a multidisciplinary enterprise that involves solving problems from elds as disparate as Hardware architecture Software engineering Marketing and investment Solid-state physics Systems engineering Circuit design Discrete mathematics Electronic design automation Layout design Hardware test equipment and measurement techniques Covering all these subjects is clearly beyond the scope of this text and also beyond the author s pro ciency. Yet, I have made an attempt to collect material from the above elds that I have found to be relevant for deciding whether or not to develop digital Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) circuits, for making major design decisions, and for carrying out the actual engineering work. The present volume has been written with two audiences in mind.

As a textbook, it wants to introduce engineering students to the beauty and the challenges of digital VLSI design while preventing them from repeating mistakes that others have made before. Practising electronics engineers should nd it appealing as a reference book because of its comprehensiveness and the many tables, checklists, diagrams, and case studies intended to help them not to overlook important action items and alternative options when planning to develop their own hardware components. What sets this book apart from others in the eld is its top-down approach.

Beginning with hardware architectures, rather than with solid-state physics, naturally follows the normal VLSI design ow and makes the material more accessible to readers with a background in systems engineering, information technology, digital signal processing, or management. Highlights Most aspects of digital VLSI design covered Top-down approach from algorithmic considerations to wafer processing Systematic overview on architecture optimization techniques Scalable concepts for simulation testbenches including code examples Emphasis on synchronous design and HDL code portability Comprehensive discussion of clocking disciplines Key concepts behind HDLs without too many syntactical details A clear focus on the predominant CMOS technology and static circuit style Just as much semiconductor physics as digital VLSI designers really need to know Models of industrial cooperation.
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