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BEFORE using barcode implementation for microsoft office control to generate, create data matrix barcode image in microsoft office applications. upc AFTER Figure A.3 Automatic pitch matching of data path cells based on symbolic layout. different h eights, and the terminal positions do not match. Connecting the cells would require extra wiring. The symbolic approach allows the cells to adjust themselves and connect without any overhead.

The disadvantage of the symbolic approach is that the outcome of the compaction phase is often unpredictable. The resulting layout can be less dense than what is obtained with the manual approach. Notwithstanding, symbolic layout tools have improved considerably over the years and are currently a part of the mainstream design process.

. DMIA.fm Page 74 Friday, January 18, 2002 9:09 AM IC LAYOUT A . Design-Rule Checking Design rules were introduced in 2 as a set of layout restrictions that ensure the manufactured design will operate as desired with no short or open circuits. A prime requirement of the physical layout of a design is that it adhere to these rules. This can be verified with the aid of a design-rule checker (DRC), which uses as inputs the physical layout of a design and a description of the design rules presented in the form of a technology file.

Since a complex circuit can contain millions of polygons that must be checked against each other, efficiency is the most important property of a good DRC tool. The verification of a large chip can take hours or days of computation time. One way of expediting the process is to preserve the design hierarchy at the physical level.

For instance, if a cell is used multiple times in a design, it should be checked only once. Besides speeding up the process, the use of hierarchy can make error messages more informative by retaining knowledge of the circuit structure. DRC tools come in two formats: (1) The on-line DRC runs concurrent with the layout editor and flags design violations during the cell layout.

For instance, max has a builtin design-rule checking facility. An example of on-line DRC is shown in Figure A.4.

(2) Batch DRC is used as a post-design verifier, and is run on a complete chip prior to shipping the mask descriptions to the manufacturer.. Figure A.4 Microsoft Office 2d Data Matrix barcode On-line design rule checking. The white dots indicate a design rule violation.

The violated rule can be obtained with a simple mouse click.. poly_not_fet to all_diff minimum spacing = 0.14 um. Circuit Ext Microsoft Office ECC200 raction Another important tool in the custom-design methodology is the circuit extractor, which derives a circuit schematic from a physical layout. By scanning the various layers and their interactions, the extractor reconstructs the transistor network, including the sizes of the devices and the interconnections. The schematic produced can be used to verify that the artwork implements the intended function.

Furthermore, the resulting circuit diagram contains precise information on the parasitics, such as the diffusion and wiring capacitances and resistances. This allows for a more accurate simulation and analysis. The complexity of the extraction depends greatly upon the desired information.

Most extractors extract the transistor network and the capacitances of the interconnect with respect to GND or other network nodes. Extraction of the wiring resistances already comes at a. DMIA.fm Page 75 Friday, January 18, 2002 9:09 AM Section greater cos t, yet has become a necessity for virtually all high-performance circuits. Clever algorithms have helped to reduce the complexity of the resulting circuit diagrams. For very high speed circuits, extraction of the inductance would be desirable as well.

Unfortunately, this requires a three-dimensional analysis and is only feasible for small-sized circuits at present. To Probe Further More detailed information regarding the MAGIC and max layout editors can be found on the web-site of this book. In-depth textbooks on layout generation and verification have been published, and can be of great help to the novice designer.

Just to mention a number of them, [Clein00], [Uyemura95], [Wolf94], and [Weste93] offer some comprehensive and well-illustrated treatment and discussion..
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