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Pentium 4 using barcode writer for microsoft office control to generate, create gs1 datamatrix barcode image in microsoft office applications. Microsoft Word Pentium III Pentium II Pentium Transistors 486 386. 286 8086. 1000 1970. 8080 8008. 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000. Year of Introduction Historical Data Matrix ECC200 for None evolution of microprocessor transistor count (from [Intel01]).. Page 14 Friday, January 18, 2002 8:58 AM INTRODUCTION 1 . Doubles every 2 years P6 Pentium proc 486 Frequency (Mhz). 8086 8085. 8080 8008 4004. 0.1 1970. Year Figure 1.4 Microprocessor performance trends at the beginning of the 21st century. Designers h Microsoft Office 2d Data Matrix barcode ave, therefore, increasingly adhered to rigid design methodologies and strategies that are more amenable to design automation. The impact of this approach is apparent from the layout of one of the later Intel microprocessors, the Pentium 4, shown in Figure 1.5b.

Instead of the individualized approach of the earlier designs, a circuit is constructed in a hierarchical way: a processor is a collection of modules, each of which consists of a number of cells on its own. Cells are reused as much as possible to reduce the design effort and to enhance the chances for a first-time-right implementation. The fact that this hierarchical approach is at all possible is the key ingredient for the success of digital circuit design and also explains why, for instance, very large scale analog design has never caught on.

The obvious next question is why such an approach is feasible in the digital world and not (or to a lesser degree) in analog designs. The crucial concept here, and the most important one in dealing with the complexity issue, is abstraction. At each design level, the internal details of a complex module can be abstracted away and replaced by a black box view or model.

This model contains virtually all the information needed to deal with the block at the next level of hierarchy. For instance, once a designer has implemented a multiplier module, its performance can be defined very accurately and can be captured in a model. The performance of this multiplier is in general only marginally influenced by the way it is utilized in a larger system.

For all purposes, it can hence be considered a black box with known characteristics. As there exists no compelling need for the system designer to look inside this box, design complexity is substantially reduced. The impact of this divide and conquer approach is dramatic.

Instead of having to deal with a myriad of elements, the designer has to consider only a handful of components, each of which are characterized in performance and cost by a small number of parameters. This is analogous to a software designer using a library of software routines such as input/output drivers. Someone writing a large program does not bother to look inside those library routines.

The only thing he cares about is the intended result of calling one of those modules. Imagine what writing software programs would be like if one had to fetch every bit individually from the disk and ensure its correctness instead of relying on handy file open and get string operators.. Page 15 Friday, January 18, 2002 8:58 AM Section 1.2 Issues in Digital Integrated Circuit Design (a) The 4004 microprocessor Standard Cell Module Memory Module (b) The Pen tium 4 microprocessor Figure 1.5 Comparing the design methodologies of the Intel 4004 (1971) and Pentium 4 (2000 microprocessors (reprinted with permission from Intel).. Page 16 Friday, January 18, 2002 8:58 AM INTRODUCTION 1 . Typically u sed abstraction levels in digital circuit design are, in order of increasing abstraction, the device, circuit, gate, functional module (e.g., adder) and system levels (e.

g., processor), as illustrated in Figure 1.6.

A semiconductor device is an entity with a. SYSTEM MODULE + GATE CIRCUIT DEVICE G S n Design abstraction levels in digital circuits. very comple Microsoft Office 2d Data Matrix barcode x behavior. No circuit designer will ever seriously consider the solid-state physics equations governing the behavior of the device when designing a digital gate. Instead he will use a simplified model that adequately describes the input-output behavior of the transistor.

For instance, an AND gate is adequately described by its Boolean expression (Z = A.B), its bounding box, the position of the input and output terminals, and the delay between the inputs and the output. This design philosophy has been the enabler for the emergence of elaborate computer-aided design (CAD) frameworks for digital integrated circuits; without it the current design complexity would not have been achievable.

Design tools include simulation at the various complexity levels, design verification, layout generation, and design synthesis. An overview of these tools and design methodologies is given in 8 of this textbook. Furthermore, to avoid the redesign and reverification of frequently used cells such as basic gates and arithmetic and memory modules, designers most often resort to cell libraries.

These libraries contain not only the layouts, but also provide complete documentation and characterization of the behavior of the cells. The use of cell libraries is, for.
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