The study of religion and the rise of atheism in .NET Generator QR Code 2d barcode in .NET The study of religion and the rise of atheism European Article Number 13 for .NET

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The study of religion and the rise of atheism use none none integrated toassign none for nonecreating ean 13 Durkheim s worl none for none d bifurcates into the sacred and profane, and when a certain number of sacred things have relations of coordination and subordination with one another, so as to form a system that had a certain coherence and does not belong to any other system of the same sort, then the beliefs and the rites, taken together constitute a religion .29 Thus it was that religious phenomena fall into two basic categories: belief and rites. The rst are states of opinion and consist of representations; the second are particular modes of action.

Between all of these two categories of phenomena lies all that separates thinking from doing. 30 What makes Buddhism a religion, Durkheim argued, is that in the absence of gods, it accepts the existence of sacred things, namely the four Noble Truths and the practices that are derived from them .31 In Totem and Taboo, Freud lays out two basic components of religion, what will emerge in other works as compulsive practices whose motivations are hidden and deeply treasured beliefs about powerful realities whose justi cations are equally unconscious.

32 The most primitive form of these compulsive practices lay with taboo and exogamy, while the original focus of fear and reverence was the totem.33 For Raffaele Pettazzoni, religion was itself one component within the more general category of culture. Religion is historically a form of culture and cannot be understood save in the framework of that particular culture of which it is a part, and in organic association with its other forms, such as art, myth, poetry, philosophy, economic, social, and political structure.

34 Each of these denoted a set of organically interrelated things. As one spoke of Greek art or poetry constituted by their own proper objects, so one could speak of Greek religion in contrast with other religions and of religion in general in contrast with the other territories of art, myth, poetry and philosophy. With almost scholastic precision, Wilhelm Schmidt de ned religion both as beliefs and objects.

Subjectively, it [religion] is the knowledge and consciousness of dependence upon one or more transcendental, personal. Microsoft Visual C# 29 32 33 30 Ibi d., p. 34.

31 Ibid., p. 35 (emphasis added).

Ibid., p. 38.

Sigmund Freud, Totem and Taboo, trans. James Strachey, with a biographical introduction by Peter Gay (New York: W. W.

Norton, 1989), pp. 36 7, 109 10; 97ff. Obsessive Actions and Religious Practices (1907) had already charted the parallels between religious practices and obsessive neurosis, while The Future of an Illusion would point up the analogies between religious ideas and Meyert s amentia, a state of acute hallucinatory confusion .

Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion, trans. James Strachey (New York: W. W.

Norton, 1961), pp. 55 6, cf. esp.

n. 5. Raffaele Pettazzoni, Introduction to the History of Greek Religion, in his Essays on the History of Religions, trans.

H. J. Rose (Leiden: E.

J. Brill, 1954), p. 68.

Ugo Bianchi points out that with La religione primitiva in Sardegna Pettazzoni indicates his shift from classical archaeology to the history of religions. Ugo Bianchi, Pettazzoni, Raffaele (1883 1959) , in Mircea Eliade, ed., The Encyclopedia of Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1986), vol.

II, p. 261..

michael j. buckley s.j. powers, to whic h man stands in a reciprocal relation. Objectively, it is the sum of the outward actions in which it is expressed and made manifest, as prayer, sacri ce, sacraments, liturgy, ascetic practices, ethical prescriptions, and so on. 35 The insistence upon reciprocal personal relations made it necessary for Schmidt to exclude early Buddhism.

Later Buddhism would make the cut because it has included in its wide-reaching system innumerable personal deities .36 Finally, in Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido, Carl Jung takes for granted that religion is a composite of its own set of things, in contrast with things of a wholly other sort than religion . It is a world of proper religious myths, rituals, hymns, dogmas and symbols, with its object, original sin .

37 These components gave religion its unique concentration and differentiation from the sets of other objects. In fact, part of the contemporary problem lies in a shift from one to the other: To the degree that the modern mind is passionately concerned with anything and everything rather than religion, religion and its prime object original sin have mostly vanished into the unconscious. That is why, today, nobody believes in either .

. . 38 It is religion that presents as religious objects or symbols the transformed contents of the unconscious, transposing and transforming them into religion s own world of objects or images.

39 In religion, the regressive reanimation of the father-and-mother imago is organized into a system. 40 In this generic constitution of religion as a set of particularly designated units, contrasting with the parallel territories of art or science or even politics, religion became a subset of human culture. One studies religion in order to come to understand something about the character of human beings themselves, something about a particular human culture.

Religion has become the cultural evidence for the human. Durkheim spoke for. 35 36 37. 39 40. Wilhelm Schmidt none for none , S.V.D.

, The Origin and Growth of Religion: Facts and Theories, trans. H. J.

Rose (New York: Dial Press, 1931), p. 2. Ibid.

Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido was translated as Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido, trans. Beatrice M. Hinkle (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1947), p.

81. For the psychological truth of symbols and myths that are in actual truth . .

. misleading , see p. 262.

C. J. Jung, Symbols of Transformation, Bollingen Series no.

20, trans. R. F.

C. Hull (New York: Pantheon, 1956), p. 72.

This is a translation of Symbole der Wandlung (Zurich: Rascher Verlag, 1952), which is itself a fourth revised edition of Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. For this citation in the earlier work, see pp. 81 2.

Jung continues: This disbelief in the devilishness of human nature goes hand in hand with the blank incomprehension of religion and its meaning. The unconscious conversion of instinctual impulses into religious activity is ethically worthless, and often no more than an hysterical outburst. Jung, Symbols of Transformation, p.

59; Psychology of the Unconscious, pp. 72 3. See Jung s previous discussion of the writing of Miss Miller and the narrative of the Book of Job.

Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, p. 99. For further projections into dogma, see p.

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