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Topic questions 133 using visual studio .net toencode quick response code for asp.net web,windows application UPC-8 Topic questions 1. Who are marginocepha lians 2. What are the diagnostic characters of Marginocephalia How are marginocephalians related to other ornithischians 3.

What are the diagnostic characters of Pachycephalosauria 4. What are the diagnostic characters of Ceratopsia 5. Describe chewing as practiced by ceratopsian dinosaurs.

6. What do we know about ceratopsian egg-laying and nesting 7. Give a brief history of ceratopsian biogeography.

8. What is sexual selection Intraspeci c competition 9. What is in the inferred function of the horns and frill in ceratopsians 10.

What is the inferred function of the dome in pachycephalosaurs 11. How do marginocephalian features relate to intraspeci c competition and sexual selection . Ornithopoda: the tuskers, antelopes, and mighty ducks of the Mesozoic objectives Introduce O rnithopoda Develop familiarity with current thinking about lifestyles and behaviors of ornithopods Develop an understanding of ornithopod evolution using cladograms, and an understanding of the place of Ornithopoda within Dinosauria. Figure 7.1. Edmontosaur QR Code for .

NET us, a Late Cretaceous hadrosaurid ornithopod from the Western Interior of North America, looking at you, over its left shoulder, and to the right.. 136 Ornithopoda Ornithopoda Ornithopods (ornitho bird; pod foot) were the cows, deer, bison, wild horses, antelope, and sheep of the Mesozoic (Figure 7.1, see p. 133).

Magni cent herbivores all, they were one of the most numerous, diverse and longest-lived groups in all Dinosauria. From the Jurassic, when they rst appeared, until the end of the Cretaceous, when they all went extinct, ornithopods evolved nearly 100 species at present count. Ornithopods spread all over the globe.

They ranged from near the then-equator to such high latitudes as the north slope of Alaska, the Yukon, and Spitsbergen in the Northern Hemisphere, and Seymour Island, Antarctica, and the southeast coast of Australia in the Southern Hemisphere (Figures 7.2 and 7.3).

Local conditions in these regions varied widely, so ornithopods lived in quite diverse habitats and in a wide range of climates.. Figure 7.2. Global distribution of Heterodontosauridae and basal Euornithopoda. Figure 7.3. Global distribution of Iguanodontia. Ornithopoda 137 They also evolved a ran ge of sizes: early in their history, ornithopods were generally small (ranging from 1 to 2 m in length); however, later some members of the group attained quite large body sizes (upward of 12 m; Figure 7.4)..

Figure 7.4. Left lateral view of the skull and skeleton of (a) Hypsilophodon and (b) Maiasaura. 50 cm 50 cm We know as much about o rnithopods as about almost any other group of dinosaurs: Iguanodon was a charter member of Sir Richard Owen s original 1842 Dinosauria (see 14). Hadrosaurids ( duckbills ) are known from single bones to huge bonebeds. Their remains include skin impressions and ossi ed tendons, as well as delicate skull bones such as sclerotic rings (that support the eyeball), stapes (the thin rod of bone that transmits sound from the eardrum to the brain), and hyoid bones (delicate bones that support the tongue).

Paleontologists have also found hadrosaurid eggs and all growth stages represented, from hatchling, to teenager, to adult. Ornithopod footprints and trackways abound in many parts of the world..

Who were the ornithopods As we have seen, ornith opods are genasaurian cerapodans (Figure 7.5). As ornithopod phylogeny is currently understood, there is a basic split between some primitive ornithopods, including Agilisaurus and Hexinlusaurus, and the remaining ornithopods, Euornithopoda (eu true).

Within euornithopods, iguanodontians, and hadrosaurids are two important monophyletic groups.. 138 Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Cerapoda Genasauria Figure 7.5. Cladogram o Denso QR Bar Code for .

NET f Genasauria, monophyly of Ornithopoda. Derived characters include: at 1, pronounced ventral offset of the premaxillary tooth row relative to the maxillary tooth row, crescentic paroccipital processes, strong depression of the mandibular condyle beneath the level of the upper and lower tooth rows, elongation of the lateral process of the premaxilla to contact the lacrimal and/or prefrontal; at 2, scarf-like suture between postorbital and jugal, in ated edge on the orbital margin of the postorbital, deep postacetabular blade on the ilium, well-developed brevis shelf, laterally swollen ischial peduncle, elongate and narrow prepubic process..

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