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Section 7.2. in Software Make qrcode in Software Section 7.2.




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Section 7.2. generate, create qrcode none on software projects Codabar Acoustics phonetics and speech perception Wide-band s pectrograms are actually more useful for examining the frequency patterns in speech because the lack of frequency resolution somewhat blurs the frequency information and makes the patterns within more visible. Finally, it is often useful to zoom with respect to the time domain, so that sometimes a full sentence is displayed, while at others only a few phones. These points illustrate some of the artifacts of spectrogram display so as to inform that two spectrograms of the same utterance can look quite different because of the particular settings being used.

In most modern spectrogram software, these settings can easily be varied. With these and other acoustic representations it is possible to study speech from an acoustic (and pseudo-perceptual) point of view..

7.2.2 Acoustic characteristics At integer multiples of the fundamental frequency we have the harmonics. Speech with a low fundamental frequency (say 100Hz) will have closely spaced harmonics (occurring at 200Hz, 300Hz, 400Hz ..

.) while speech with a higher fundamental frequency (e.g.

200Hz) will have widely spaced harmonics (400Hz, 600Hz, 800Hz etc). The tongue, jaw and lip positions create different shaped cavities, the effect of which is to amplify certain harmonics, while attenuating others. This gives some clue as to why we call this a vocal tract lter; here the vocal tract lters the harmonics by changing the amplitudes of each.

An ampli cation caused by a lter is called a resonance, and in speech these resonances are known as formants. The frequencies at which resonances occur are determined solely by the position of the vocal tract: they are independent of the glottis. So no matter how the harmonics are spaced, for a certain vocal tract position the resonances will always occur at the same frequencies.

Different mouth shapes give rise to different patterns of formants, and in this way, the production mechanisms of height and loudness give rise to different characteristic acoustic patterns. As each vowel has a different vocal tract shape, it will have different formant pattern, and it is these that the listener uses as the main cue to vowel identity. The relationship between mouth shapes and formant patterns is complicated, and is fully examined in 11.

By convention, formants are named F1, F2, F3 and so on. Somewhat confusingly, fundamental frequency is often called F0. Note that fundamental frequency/F0 is not a formant, and has nothing to do with formants - it is determined by the glottis alone.

Studies have shown that not all formants are of equal perceptual importance; in fact, the identity of a vowel is nearly completely governed by the frequency of the rst two formants (F1 and F2). Figure 7.8 shows a formant chart in which the axes represent F1 and F2 values.

Typical positions of each vowel (determined experimentally) are shown on the graph. and from this we can see that each vowel occupies a different position on the graph, giving evidence to the idea that it is in fact the rst two formants that distinguish vowels. Other speech sounds have characteristic spectrogram patterns also.

Nasals are generally weak and have a wide formant at around about 300Hz, caused by resonance in the nasal cavity. As the nasal cavity is xed, the resonance will always occur at the same position. Each nasal has.

4000 3000 i Second Formant 2000 I Phonetics and Phonology 1000 u. 800 First Formant Figure 7.8 Software QR Chart of measured mean positions of vowels plotted in terms of rst and second formant positions. The chart shows that to a large extent, the two formant positions separate most vowels.

This has led to the general assumption that F1 and F2 positions are used to discriminate vowels. This chart is shown in the form standard in phonetics; note that the axes have been speci cally set up to make this plot easier to interpret..

its own ora l cavity shape however, and the resonances in this are the main distinguishing feature between [m] and [n]. In stops, it is often possible to see the distinct phases of closure and the subsequent burst. While subtle, it is possible to tell one stop from another from the resonant patterns in the burst and in the immediately neighbouring vowel.

Approximants look like weak vowels, which is what we would expect..
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