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VUIs AND MOBILE APPLICATIONS using none toencode none with web,windows application ean13 Understanding th none for none e User As we previously mentioned, the single most important factor in designing VUIs is to know the user. The information about the user can be divided into three categories: 1. Information Collected During the Session.

As the user interacts with the system we can collect a history or a list of the things that are done during a given session. Session boundaries are typically dependent on the communication channel used for the VUI. For example, the session boundaries of a phone call begin with the user dialing a phone number and end with the user hanging up.

During the session, information can be collected based on the responses given to help us prompt the user with better prompts or give the user better responses. For example, a particular user may intuitively prefer directed dialogue over natural language interactions. This may be concluded if he or she is able to navigate and interact with the system more quickly when using a directed-dialogue interaction as opposed to a mixed-initiative dialogue.

In such a case, as the session progresses, we may have the logic in the system to present more directed-dialogue interactions to the user. Example 7.6 shows such a case.

In this example, either the prompts are not clear enough or the user does not recognize the fact that to check the score of a game, he or she has to rst say the name of the league and then the name of the team. The user is given the chance to interact through mixed-initiative dialogues, but once he or she does not provide the system with an easily understandable response, the system goes into a directed-dialogue mode for the remainder of the session. Also note that, as in the case of any typical application, some settings can be remembered from previous interactions with the user.

In this example, the user has set some pro le information that speci es his or her favorite sports teams. 2. Application-Dependent (Domain-Dependent) Assumptions about the User.

Making assumptions about the user is not only acceptable but may even be necessary to build a good VUI. If the user is using a complex accounting application, it is ne to assume that he or she has a fair amount of knowledge in accounting. This can tell us much about the pro le of the user.

To limit the grammar of the dialogues between a user and a system, we can make assumptions about the user that increases the usability of the application by orders of magnitude to the majority of the users (although it may make it more cumbersome for a small subset of the user base). 3. Speci cs of the Mobile State of the User.

It is important to understand the speci cs of the mobile state of the user and to design the user interface appropriately. In other words, a good mobile user interface is dynamic enough to adjust itself to the condition of the mobile user. For example, if the user is driving in a convertible and communicating with the system through a mobile phone, it may be appropriate to switch to a female voice with a higher pitch so that the user has an easier time making out the words.

Every VUI interaction for a mobile system should be designed with the mobile condition of the user ( 1) in mind.. 7.4 Voice Recognition Example 7.6: Sam none none ple of a Directed-Dialogue Interaction. System: Would you like to hear the scores Please say the name of the league rst and then the name of the team.

User: Sure, how did the Bronco s do System: I m sorry, I didn t get that. Which league did you want to check, NHL, NBA, or NFL. User: NFL.

System: Did you want to check the Denver Bronco s Score User: Yes. System: Denver beat New England 24 16 today. Would you like to continue User: What happened in the Laker game System: I m sorry, I didn t get that.

Would you like to check an NHL game, NFL game, or NBA game User: NBA. System: Which team would you like, the Los Angeles Lakers or the Los Angeles Clippers If you d like another team, please say the name of the team. User: Lakers.

System: The Lakers didn t have a game today. Would you like the most recent score User: No, thanks. Quit.

System: Thank you for using the SportsAreLife Portal. Good bye..

Using Pronouns a nd Other Markers Mobile users are not focused and usually rushed so we need to keep interactions concise. However, they also need a little more time to understand prompts and other aural output as they are typically doing multiple things at the same time. So, as a general rule of thumb, when building mobile VUIs, keep the content of the prompts short and to the point, but use markers and pronounce frequently.

For example, instead of prompting the user Please say the ve digit postal code of your address now, we should prompt the user as Ok, what is your zip code Such prompts also tend to be more informal. In the context of mobile applications, using pronouns and markers to make the user interface more friendly takes precedence to abiding to a consistent look and feel (as, for example, with formal communications in a banking application). Consistency It may seem too obvious too mention, but in the case of VUIs, as in any other type of user interface, consistency is crucial.

Maintaining consistency is important at three levels: 1. Interface Details: Keeping the same voice talent, identity, vocabulary sets, and other details used in communicating to the user is crucial. For example, if one part of the application uses incidentals, markers, and pronouns to deliver a more natural interface and another part does not, the user will feel as if he or she.

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